Japanese Grammar

Compound Particles

Japanese Compound Particle Table

Japanese Compound Particle Plain Form Polite Form Conjunctive Form Form to Modify Noun End of Sentence に対して に対しまして に対し に対しての / に対する – について につきまして – についての – に関して に関しまして – に関しての / に関する – をめぐって をめぐりまして をめぐり をめぐっての / をめぐる – *にかかわる – – にかかわる – によって によりまして により による よる につき につきまして – […]

Compound Particles

How to Express Various Targets: に対して, について, and にかかわる

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You have entered a new section named “Compound Particles.” In Japanese grammar, particles determine the role of nouns, e.g. the topic particle は and the parallel marker と. However, there are some words which can substitute for particles, which we call “Compound Particles.” They basically consist of a particle and the te-form of a verb […]

Compound Sentence

Major Conjunctions in Japanese

But: だけど

This is the last lesson in the compound sentence section. By conjugating verbs, you can express various things such as sequential, parallel, and simultaneous actions. On the other hand, you can also express the same things by using conjunctions. In this lesson, you will learn some major conjunctions in Japanese. Explanation for How Japanese Conjunctions […]

Compound Sentence

Reverse Conditions: …ても, …のに, and …が・けど・けれど・けれども

In spite of: のに

Last time, you learned how conditionals work in Japanese, e.g. “もし風邪かぜを引ひいたら休やすみを取とる (If I catch a cold, I will take leave).” However, there is another type of conditional. If you would like to say, “I won’t take leave even if I catch a cold,” how should it be? We call this Reverse Conditions. In this lesson, […]

Compound Sentence

How Conditionals Work in Japanese: …と, …ば, …たら, and …なら

if: ...たら

Last time, you learned how to express aims, e.g. “日に本ほんを旅行りょこうするために、日に本ほん語ごを勉べん強きょうしている (I’m studying Japanese to travel to Japan).” The variety of your expressions are certainly increasing now. Then, if you would like to say, “If you travel Japan, you should study Japanese,” how should it be? In this lesson, you will learn how to express conditionals. […]

Compound Sentence

How to Express Aims: …ために, …に, …のに, and …ように

In order to move: 引っ越すため

Last time, you learned how to express reasons, e.g. “弟おとうとが住すんでいたから、オーストラリアを旅行りょこうしました (I traveled to Australia because my younger brother lived there).” Then, if you would like to say “I traveled to Australia to meet my younger brother,” what should you say? The meanings are similar, but the sentence patterns that you use should be different. In […]

Compound Sentence

How to Express Reasons: …から and …ので

Because: から

Last time, you learned how to express time clauses, e.g. “大学生だいがくせいのとき、オーストラリアを旅行りょこうしました (When I was a university student, I traveled to Australia).” Time clauses allow you to more precisely express when actions and events take place. Then, if you would like to say, “I traveled to Australia because my brother lived there” what should you say? […]

Compound Sentence

Time Clauses: …とき, …てから, …後で, …前に, …あいだに, and …うちに

When: とき

Last time, you learned how to express simultaneous actions, e.g. “テレビを見みながら勉べん強きょうをしました (I studied while watching TV).” The variety of your expression is greatly increasing now. Then, if you would like to say, “when I was a child, I studied while watching TV,” what should you do? In this lesson, you will learn how to utilize […]

Compound Sentence

Simultaneous Actions: …ながら and …たまま

While: ながら

Last time, you learned negative sequential and parallel actions, e.g. “電でん気きを消けさないで寝ねました (I went to bed without turning off the light),” and “私わたしは虫むしが好すきじゃなくて、動物どうぶつが好すきなんです (I didn’t like insects, but animals).” Then, if you want to say, “I went to bed while wearing clothes,” what you should do? In this lesson, you will learn how to express simultaneous […]

Compound Sentence

Negative Sequential and Parallel Actions: …ないで, …なくて, and …ずに

Without: ...ずに

Last time, you learned how to express sequential and parallel actions, e.g. “船ふねに乗のって日に本ほんに来きました (I took a ferry and came to Japan),” and “私わたしは船ふねに乗のって、お父とうさんは飛ひ行こう機きに乗のりました (I took a ferry and my father took a flight).” Then, if you would like to say, “I came to Japan without taking a flight,” what should you say? In this lesson, […]