Japanese Grammar

Part of Speech

Japanese Interjection and Emotional Expressions

12

Last time, you learned how particles work to indicate supplementary subordinate clauses, e.g. “先生はiPadを片手に授業をしている (The teacher is holding the class with an iPad in his hand).” Then, if you’d like to add a nuance of surprise like “Wow, the teacher is holding the class with an iPad in his hand!” what should you say? In […]

Japanese Grammar

Japanese Supplementary Subordinate Clauses: XをYに

11

Last time, you learned compound verbs, e.g. “落おち着ついて今こん後ごのことを考かんがえよう (Let’s calm down and think about things in the future)” and “お茶ちゃを飲のみ干ほした (We drank down a glass of green tea).” By utilizing compound verbs, you can express actions in a more sophisticated way. Then, if you’d like to say, ”Let’s think about things in the future on […]

Japanese Grammar

Japanese Compound Verbs

10

Last time, you learned how omissions of particles works in conversation, e.g. “バスを降おりる (We will get off the bus),” and “電車でんしゃに乗のる (We will take the train).” Omissions have a very important role in Japanese. Then, if you’d like to express two actions at the same time like “get off of one vehicle and take another” […]

Japanese Grammar

Omissions of Particles and は VS. が

09

We have entered the parts of speech section again. You have the basic knowledge already and thus we would like to introduce some advanced topics here. If you have difficulty understanding it, please review the related basic grammar. In this lesson, you will learn the concept of omission of particles. How Omissions of Particles Work […]

Compound Particles

How to Express Conditions: によって, 次第で, に応じて, を問わず, にかかわらず, なしで, and なしに

08

Last time, you learned how to express various means and standards, e.g. “電でん気きによって車くるまを動うごかしています (I’m moving a car by using electricity),” and “規き制せいに沿そって車くるまを輸ゆ出しゅつしました (I exported a car following the regulations).” The compound particles, which are によって and に沿そって, have a single particle counterpart, で . In this lesson, you will learn some compound particles which don’t […]

Compound Particles

Expressions for Means and Standards: によって, を通じて, にて, に沿って, 基づいて, and 即して

07

Last time, you learned various expressions for space and time, e.g. “8月はちがつをもってアメリカへ帰き国こくします (I will return to the US in August),” and “ボブは10じゅっ歳さいにしてプログラムを始はじめました (Surprisingly, Bob started programming when he was 10 years old).” They are interchangeable with the particle で, but have more detailed nuances with high formality. In this lesson, we would like to continue […]

Compound Particles

Expressions for Space and Time: において, にて, をもって, にかけて, にわたって, and を通じて

06

Last time, you learned various ways to express reasons, e.g. “地じ震しんによって家いえが壊こわれました (The house was destroyed due to the earthquake),” and “大雨おおあめにつき今日きょうはお休やすみします (We will be closed today due to the heavy rain).” In this lesson, you will learn compound particles which are related to another function of the particle で. How to Express Space and Time […]

Compound Particles

How to Express Various Reasons: によって, につき, おかげで, and せいで

05

Last time, you learned how to express various targets, e.g. “学生がくせいに対たいして厳きびしい質問しつもんをした (I asked students a tough question),” and “教きょう育いくに関かんしての質問しつもんでした (It was a question regarding education).” Compound particles enable you to express detailed nuances with a high level of formality. In this lesson, you will learn ones related to reasons and causation. Compound Particle Counterparts to […]

Compound Particles

Japanese Compound Particle Table

Japanese Compound Particle Plain Form Polite Form Conjunctive Form Form to Modify Noun End of Sentence に対して に対しまして に対し に対しての / に対する – について につきまして – についての – に関して に関しまして – に関しての / に関する – をめぐって をめぐりまして をめぐり をめぐっての / をめぐる – *にかかわる – – にかかわる – によって によりまして により による よる につき につきまして – […]

Compound Particles

How to Express Various Targets: に対して, について, and にかかわる

04

You have entered a new section named “Compound Particles.” In Japanese grammar, particles determine the role of nouns, e.g. the topic particle は and the parallel marker と. However, there are some words which can substitute for particles, which we call “Compound Particles.” They basically consist of a particle and the te-form of a verb […]