Japanese Grammar

Wasabi’s Online Japanese Grammar Reference

Grammar Reference

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Complete Guide to Japanese Grammar

*Work in progress

We have designed the contents of this grammar guide to be both learning tools and references. Thus, if you’d like to systematically learn Japanese grammar, please read through the guide from the beginning. If you’d like to find or refer to a particular topic, please press “Control + F” (or “Command + F”) and type your search query (such as a sentence pattern that you want to know) in Hiragana. Alternatively, utilize the Custom Search provided by Google

Table of Contents

Basic Grammar

1. Part of Speech
1-1. Japanese Nouns: State-of-Being: だ, です, じゃない, and じゃありません
1-2. Topic Particle は and Particle も
1-3. Japanese Adjectives with Particle が
1-4. Japanese Verbs: U-verbs, Ru-verbs and Conjugation
1-5. Subjects of Japanese Verbs with Particle は and が
1-6. Objects of Japanese Verbs with Particle を, に, and と
1-7. Particle で: Expressing Supplementary Information
1-8. Particles: から and まで
1-9. Parallel Markers: と, や, か, and とか
1-10. Particle の: Possessor and Modifier
1-11. Combined Particles
1-12. Nominalizers: こと and の
1-13. Relative Clauses
1-14. Japanese Adverbs
1-15. Advanced Adjectives: Noun Phrases & Particular Particles
1-16. Advanced Verbs: Intransitive VS. Transitive
1-17. Sentence Ending Particles: ね, よ, and よね
2. Japanese Counting System
2-1. Japanese Numerals
2-2. Japanese Counters
2-3. How Japanese Counting System Works in a Sentence
3. Interrogative Sentence
3-1. Explanatory のだ(んだ)
3-2. Question Markers: か and の
3-3. Japanese Demonstratives: これ, それ, あれ, and どれ with Identifier Particle が
3-4. Japanese Wh-questions: 何, どの, 誰・どなた, どこ, and どっち・どちら
3-5. Japanese Wh-questions: どんな and どう
3-6. Japanese Wh-questions: どうして・なぜ・なんで, いつ, いくつ, いくら and どのぐらい
3-7. Negative Questions and How to Respond
3-8. How Japanese Question Words Work outside of Wh-questions
4. Others
4-1. Japanese Word Order

Essential Grammar

5. Tense and Aspect
5-1. Present and Future Tense with Time-Nouns
5-2. Present Progressive Tense and Resultant State with Te-form
5-3. Existence and Possession ある and ない
5-4. Past and Present Perfect Tense with Ta-form
5-5. How to Modify Nouns with Ta-form
5-6. Another Function of the Ta-form: Discovery and Recall
5-7. Experience …ことがある and …ている
5-8. Japanese Aspect: 始める, だす,  続ける, つつある, 終わる, やむ, and ところだ
5-9. Other Utilization of Te-form てしまう, てある, ておく, and てみる
6. Key Sentence Patterns
6-1. Expressing Change: なる and する
6-2. Potential Form: (ら)れる and ことができる
6-3. Passive Form: (ら)れる with the particle に, から and によって
6-4. Causative Form: させる with the particle に and を
6-5. Receiving and Giving: あげる,くれる, and もらう
6-6. Helping Verbs: …ていく and …てくる
6-7. Quotation: と, という, and ように
6-8. Comparison: より, 方が, and …(の中)で一番
6-9. Numbers and Amounts: も, だけ, しか, ばかり, and すぎる
7. Modality (Speaker’s Feelings)
7-1. Certainty: だろう, かもしれない, はずだ, and に違いない
7-2. Judgments: そうだ, ようだ, みたいだ, and らしい
7-3. Desire: たい, 欲しい, and …て欲しい
7-4. Volition: …(よ)う and つもりだ
7-5. Invitations and Offers: ない, ませんか, and ましょうか
7-6. Command and Requests: しろ, なさい, and て+ください・くれる・もらう
7-7. Obligation and Prohibition: だめだ, いけない, and ならない
7-8. Advice and Permission: てもいい and 方がいい
8. Compound Sentences
8-1. Sequential and Parallel Actions: …て, …たり, and …し
8-2. Negative Sequential and Parallel Actions: …ないで, …なくて, and …ずに
8-3. Simultaneous Actions: …ながら and …たまま
8-4. Time Clauses: …とき, …てから, …後で, …前に, …あいだに, and …うちに
8-5. Reasons: …から and …ので
8-6. Aims: …ために, …に, …のに, and …ように
8-7. Conditionals: …と, …ば, …たら, and …なら
8-8. Reverse Condition: …ても, …のに, …けど, and …けれども
8-9. Major Conjunctions

Advanced Grammar

Coming soon…


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