Last time, you learned various expressions for space and time, e.g. “８月をもってアメリカへ帰国します (I will return to the US in August),” and “ボブは１０歳にしてプログラムを始めました (Surprisingly, Bob started programming when he was 10 years old).” They are interchangeable with the particle で, but have more detailed nuances with high formality. In this lesson, we would like to continue with the rest of the compound particle counterparts to the particle で.
How to Express Means and Standards in Various Ways
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Compound Particles to Express Means
Compound Particles to Express Standards
One of the basic functions of the particle で is to indicate means like “タクシーで学校に行く (I will go to school by taxi).” Means can somehow be interpreted as standards, e.g. when you made a contract following the laws in Japan, the laws can somehow be thought of as ‘means.’ Thus, you can say it in Japanese like this “日本の法律で契約をしました.” However, compound particles allow you to say it in more a natural way. Let’s learn how to express various ‘means’ in detail.
Compound Particles to Express Means
Here we will deal with によって, を通じて, にて, and をもって. As you may have noticed, you have already learned these phrases for expressing different functions. Just like particles, compound particles can also have multiple functions. They are interchangeable with the particle で, but you can express more detailed nuances with them.
によって: Means for Actions Done by Public Organizations
|東京小学校は||iPadによって||授業を||して（いる / います）|
|Topic / Subject||Means||Direct Object||Verb|
|Tokyo Elementary School gives classes by using iPads.|
The function of によって here is to indicate means, which is the same as the particle で. However, since the formality is higher, によって is suitable for activities done by public organizations and is not suitable for individual or ordinary actions (*Look at the third example).
|火事の原因が調査によって判明（した / しました）。
The cause of the fire became clear through the investigation.
|ヘリコプターによって被災者を救助（する / します）。
[We] rescue victims of disasters by helicopter.
|箸 で・によって ご飯を（食べる / 食べます）。
[I] eat meals by chopsticks.
However, if you use the form による, you can connect it with nouns in the same way as relative clauses. In that case, you can use it for individual and ordinary actions. We can say the meaning is the same as the combined particle での.
|タクシー での・による通勤はとても楽（だ / です）。
A commute by taxi is very easy.
|iPad での・による授業は効果的（だ / です）。
Classes with iPad are effective.
を通じて: Means (Media) of Communication
|私は||新聞を通じて||政策に||抗議（した / しました）|
|Topic / Subject||Means (Media)||Target||Verb|
|I protested against the policy through the newspaper.|
The function is to indicate means of communication. Means can be not only media, but people and actions such as interpreters and demonstrations. Your speech would make sense even if you use the particle で, however を通じて is more suitable in this context. を通（とお）して is sometimes used instead of 通じて. They have the same function.
|地震についてラジオを通じて（知った / 知りました）。
[I] came to know about the earthquake via the radio.
|通訳を通じてインタビューを（した / しました）。
[I] interviewed [him/her] through an interpreter.
|デモを通じて戦争に反対（した / しました）。
[We] opposed wars by way of demonstration.
を通じて has another function which is to express experience as means. This is generally used when you express something changed. You can substitute で or によって, which just indicates means. However, you can emphasize the nuance of experience by using を通じて.
|留学を通じて私の日本語はとても成長（した / しました）。
Through the study abroad, my Japanese has improved very much.
|たくさんの失敗を通して、実験に成功することができ（た / ました）。
Through a lot of failures, [I] have been able to succeed in the experiment.
にて and をもって: Way of Carrying Something Out
|As for the result of the job interview, [I] will inform [you] by email.|
You can use にて or をもって to indicate the way something is carried out. They are interchangeable with the particle で, however, にて or をもって is preferred in formal writing. Although some grammar guides say をもって is frequently used, にて can more often be heard in practical situations.
As for the detail, [I] will explain [it] orally.
[I] will go by bullet train.
Compound Particles to Express Standards
We introduced the sentence earlier: “日本の法律で契約をしました (I made a contract following the laws in Japan).” Standards can be somehow expressed by the particle で. However, there are more natural expressions. Here, you will learn the three words: に沿って, に基づいて, and に即して.
に沿って: Following or Along
|[私は]||日本の法律に沿って||契約を||した / しました|
|[Topic / Subject]||Standards||Direct Object||Verb|
|[I] made a contract following the laws in Japan.|
に沿って is the counterpart to “following” in English and generally used with those nouns: “法律: law,” “ガイドライン: guideline,” “方針: policy,” etc. This is interchangeable with the particle で, but に沿って sounds more natural in this context.
|会社の方針に沿って仕事を（進めた / 進めました）。
[I] proceeded with the business following the company’s policy.
Please apply for a visa following the predetermined paperwork.
に沿って has another function which works just like “along.” Here, you cannot substitute the particle で.
|川に沿って歩くと小さな村が（ある / あります）。
If [you] walk along the river, [you] will find a small village.
|この通りに沿ってカフェが（ある / あります）。
There are cafes along this street.
に基づいて: Based on…
|この映画は||実話に基づいて||作られ（た / ました）|
|Topic / Subject||Standards||Verb: Passive Form|
|This movie was made based on a true story.|
に基づいて is the counterpart to “based on” in English. Note: This is NOT interchangeable with the particle で.
|社長の指示に基づいて仕事をしないと（いけない / いけません）。
[You] have to work based on the directions given by the president.
|明日の会議はこの資料に基づいて（行う / 行います）。
As for tomorrow’s meeting, [we] will hold [it] based on this material.
|事実に基づいて計画を立て（よう / ましょう）。
Let’s make a plan based on the facts.
The origin of に基づいて is the verb: 基づく. Thus, you can reword the examples above as follows.
|この仕事は社長の指示に基づいて（いる / います）。
This business is based on the directions given by the president.
|明日の会議はこの資料に基づいて（いる / います）。
Tomorrow’s meeting is based on this material.
|私たちの計画は事実に基づいて（いる / います）。
Our plan is based on the fact.
に即して: In Accordance with…
|法律は||社会の実態に即して||変わらないと（いけない / いけません）|
|Topic / Subject||Standards||Verb|
|The laws have to change in accordance with the actual conditions in society.|
に即して is the counterpart to “in accordance with” in English and generally used with nouns which are related to states of realities like “実態: actual condition.” Note: に即して is NOT a common word and rarely used in practice. You only need to remember the usage if you plan to take the JLPT N1.
Please respond flexibly in accordance with the actual situation.
|時代に即してニーズは（変わる / 変わります）。
Needs will change in accordance with the era.
If you would like to reword the examples above in more natural ways, you can utilize the verb “合わせる: to match, adjust.” By using this in the te-form, you can nicely express almost the same things.
Please respond flexibly in a way appropriate to the actual situation.
|時代に合わせてニーズは（変わる / 変わります）。
Needs change along with the era.
- によって indicates means for actions done by public organizations.
- を通じて indicates media of communication.
- にて and をもって indicate ways of carrying something out.
- に沿って is the counterpart to “following” or “along” in English.
- に基づいて is the counterpart to “based on” in English.
- に即して is the counterpart to “in accordance with” in English.
Now you have completed the overview of compound particles which correspond to the particle に and で. They are greatly helpful in formal situations. Thus, the usage may be a little difficult, but try to become familiar with them. Next, we would like to explain some useful compound particles which don’t correspond to any single particles, indicating conditions like “depending on” and “regardless of.
Expressions for Space and Time: において, にて, をもって, にかけて, にわたって, and を通じて
How to Express Conditions: によって, 次第で, に応じて, を問わず, にかかわらず, なしで, and なしに